On Creation Day 1, God made the earth, and gave it light. But on Day 4, earth needed another lamp, before He stretched the universe. That “Big Stretch” would cool the ambient light to a level that could never support life by itself.
Creation Day 1 Recap
Recall that on Creation Day 1, God made the universe and everything in it, as so many elementary particles. These particles each began separate from the rest, hence in a high-energy state. As the particles “fell into place” to form atoms (and molecules), they gave off light. At first the light shone everywhere, but quickly the light on one side of the new earth dwindled to darkness. Thus God “separated light from dark.”
On Creation Day 3, God planted the earth, like a vast garden. The ambient light from creation still shone then, and bright enough to support photosynthesis. But now God was ready for His next step.
God makes the stars
Genesis 1:14 tells why God made many more discrete lamps:
Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years.
The “expanse of the skies” is not the same expanse that God made on Creation Day 2. That expanse is the earth’s crust. This new expanse is the universe itself.
the universe [began] growing from a patch as small as 10-26 m, one hundred billion times smaller than a proton.
Convention then says that the universe grew during 10-34 second. In that amount of time, the light in the universe cooled to its present very low temperature. This is the Cosmic Microwave Background that we know today.
But that implies that stars, galaxies, and larger objects formed after the expansion, not before. (Specifically, after five hundred million years.) The problem: the matter in the universe today is stretched too thin even for a new star to form. Conventional scientists assume that this matter exist as a vast dust cloud. But that cloud would disperse before it got dense enough for a star to form. Worse yet, if the cloud had any spin to it, it would spin too fast and fly apart as it started shrinking. (Any spinning object spins faster as it contracts. The Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum predicts this.)
Conclusion: the sun, moon, stars, and all the planets formed before the expansion. The universe was more dense then, but was not the infinitely hot “point” that the Big Bang assumes. Instead, the universe was about as hot as the Sun is today, with a density and volume to match.
The particular lamps that God made were:
- The Sun, to give daylight.
- The Moon, large enough to reflect part of the Sun’s light and to mark a twelfth part of the year.
- The stars.
But God did not set the stars in the sky at random. The patterns, or constellations, in the sky are no accident. They do mark the seasons in a temperate climate (or even a semi-tropical one like that in Israel).
The Big Stretch
- The universe seems to be accelerating. Conventional astronomers mark this down to “dark energy,” or a force that they cannot see, pushing the universe out. (They assume that gravity alone acts on the universe and is slowing it down or even trying to pull it back in.)
- At the same time, galaxies and larger objects spin faster than they should. If they acquired this spin before the Big Stretch, they would keep it afterward. (Conventional scientists have a “dark” thought for this, too: “dark matter.”)
- The loose hydrogen in intergalactic space is ionized. That means that it has no electrons. The Big Bang theory cannot explain that. According to it, hydrogen ions (free protons and deuterons) should have captured their electrons. So what made them lose those electrons all over again?
- Many galaxies appear in long strings, something that should never happen under gravity alone. This might be the most obvious “stretch mark” other than the accelerated expansion.
Even more evidence shows that the stars must have formed before the great expansion, when matter was far more dense:
- Black holes, the heaviest objects known, should never have formed after the Big Bang. What’s more, many of them are throwing out jets of matter, though nothing should escape them.
- The larger any given galaxy, the larger its central black hole. Furthermore, a galaxy often has many stars in a close orbit around its center. In an already tenuous universe, this should not be. The black hole would stop that from happening.
- Dwarf galaxies often appear in orbit around larger galaxies. (Our own galaxy has such a family.) How could any such object form in a less-dense environment?
- Finally, the universe has many pairs of galaxies that literally ran into each other. That kind of crowding happened before the Big Stretch, not after.
Thus Creation Day 4 was at least as exciting a day as any in Creation Week. On this Day God made the universe in all its glory. And He already knew that He would make someone to appreciate it.
- Creation Day 3: the planting
- Creation Day 3: dry land
- Creation Day 2: fire in water
- Creation Day 2: the firmament
- Creation Day 1: light
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Terry A. Hurlbut has been a student of politics, philosophy, and science for more than 35 years. He is a graduate of Yale College and has served as a physician-level laboratory administrator in a 250-bed community hospital. He also is a serious student of the Bible, is conversant in its two primary original languages, and has followed the creation-science movement closely since 1993.
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